[99] It established camps in Turkey in 1922 to aid the country with an ongoing refugee crisis, helping to prevent the spread of cholera, smallpox and dysentery as well as feeding the refugees in the camps. [47] The final Covenant of the League of Nations was drafted by a special commission, and the League was established by Part I of the Treaty of Versailles. League of Nations Members Quiz [218], At the 1943 Tehran Conference, the Allied powers agreed to create a new body to replace the League: the United Nations. [102], The Covenant of the League said little about economics. The Fabians were the first to argue for a "Council" of states, necessarily the Great Powers, who would adjudicate world affairs, and for the creation of a permanent secretariat to enhance international co-operation across a range of activities. In December 1917, during the turmoil of the Russian October Revolution, Finland declared its independence, but most of the Ålanders wished to rejoin Sweden. [70], The Assembly consisted of representatives of all members of the League, with each state allowed up to three representatives and one vote. On December 14, 1939, the League of Nations, the international peacekeeping organization formed at the end of World War I, expels the Union … Albert Thomas was its first director. In this context, the League of Nations was also the institution where the first international debate on terrorism took place following the 1934 assassination of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia in Marseille, France, showing its conspiratorial features, many of which are detectable in the discourse of terrorism among states after 9/11.[211]. Each country which was a member sent someone to represent them at the assembly. The League held its first council meeting in Paris on 16 January 1920, six days after the Versailles Treaty and the Covenant of the League of Nations came into force. [53] Upon reading the Rules of Procedure for the League of Nations, Catherine Marshall, a British suffragist, discovered that the guidelines were completely undemocratic and they were modified based on her suggestion.[56]. [220] Delegates from 34 nations attended the assembly. [149][150], In addition to territorial disputes, the League also tried to intervene in other conflicts between and within nations. The members are responsible for the fate of the union and everything that happens in the union. [46] After more negotiation and compromise, the delegates finally approved of the proposal to create the League of Nations (French: Société des Nations, German: Völkerbund) on 25 January 1919. It also campaigned to end child labour, increase the rights of women in the workplace, and make shipowners liable for accidents involving seamen. On Sept. 15, 1934, acting on the initiative of French diplomacy (specifically, the proposal of J. L. Barthou), 30 member states of the League of Nations proposed that the USSR join the League. King and his vice-president. For the group in professional wrestling, see, 20th-century intergovernmental organisation, predecessor to the United Nations, The first meeting of the Council of the League of Nations took place on 16 January 1920 in the Salle de l'Horloge at the, The first meeting of the Assembly of the League of Nations took place on 15 November 1920 at the, Total Digital Access to the League of Nations Archives Project (LONTAD), Peter Yearwood, "‘On the Safe and Right Lines’: The Lloyd George Government and the Origins of the League of Nations, 1916–1918. In a speech to Congress on 8 January 1918, Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) presented the “Fourteen Points,” the last of which called for a general association of nations to be formed to afford “mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”After Wilson and others discussed various proposals, such a general association of nations came into being as the League of Nations. In 1933, Japan simply withdrew from the League rather than submit to its judgement,[194] as did Germany the same year (using the failure of the World Disarmament Conference to agree to arms parity between France and Germany as a pretext), Italy and Spain in 1937. Particular questions or tasks might be referred to either. On 28 June 1919,[48][49] 44 states signed the Covenant, including 31 states which had taken part in the war on the side of the Triple Entente or joined it during the conflict. In 1923, a permanent economic and financial Organization came into being. In addition, there were several auxiliary agencies and commissions. [174] The League sanctions were lifted on 4 July 1936, but by that point, Italy had already gained control of the urban areas of Abyssinia. [171], The League of Nations condemned Italy's aggression and imposed economic sanctions in November 1935, but the sanctions were largely ineffective since they did not ban the sale of oil or close the Suez Canal (controlled by Britain). [119], As the League developed, its role expanded, and by the middle of the 1920s it had become the centre of international activity. Of the League's 42 founding members, 23 (24 counting Free France) remained members until it was dissolved in 1946. Its foundational aims were to encourage governments to solve international disputes by peaceful means. [23], Within two weeks of the start of the war, feminists began to mobilise against the war. When the British cabinet discussed the concept of the League during the First World War, Maurice Hankey, the Cabinet Secretary, circulated a memorandum on the subject. [109] This plan, defined as the mandate system, was adopted by the "Council of Ten" (the heads of government and foreign ministers of the main Allied powers: Britain, France, the United States, Italy, and Japan) on 30 January 1919 and transmitted to the League of Nations. It is scheduled for completion in 2022. [190] Members of the League held different views towards the issue. When the referendum was held in 1935, 90.3 per cent of voters supported becoming part of Germany, which was quickly approved by the League Council. After Lithuania took over the Klaipėda Region, the Allied Conference set the frontier between Lithuania and Poland, leaving Vilnius within Poland, on 14 March 1923. The matter was referred to the Permanent Court of International Justice, which ruled that, when the Council made a unanimous decision, it must be accepted. The French philosopher Henri Bergson became the first chairman of the committee. The League of Nations was thought up by Woodrow Wilson, the American President during the First World War. [123] After the First World War, Poland laid claim to Upper Silesia, which had been part of Prussia. Iraq, which joined in 1932, was the first member that had previously been a League of Nations mandate. The Peruvian Army occupied Leticia, leading to an armed conflict between the two nations. Between 1920 and 1939, a total of 63 countries became member states of the League of Nations. "[94][93], The League also succeeded in reducing the death rate of workers constructing the Tanganyika railway from 55 to 4 percent. [111] The Permanent Mandates Commission supervised League of Nations mandates,[112] and also organised plebiscites in disputed territories so that residents could decide which country they would join. The staff of the Secretariat was responsible for preparing the agenda for the Council and the Assembly and publishing reports of the meetings and other routine matters, effectively acting as the League's civil service. [22] The Executive Council would create a Permanent Court of International Justice to make judgements on the disputes. The islands are almost exclusively Swedish-speaking, but in 1809, the Åland Islands, along with Finland, were taken by Imperial Russia. They also used the League's machinery to try to improve relations and settle their differences. [224], In the past few decades, by research using the League Archives at Geneva, historians have reviewed the legacy of the League of Nations as the United Nations has faced similar troubles to those of the interwar period. STUDY. [31] At the close of the conference, two delegations of women were dispatched to meet European heads of state over the next several months. [206], Another important weakness grew from the contradiction between the idea of collective security that formed the basis of the League and international relations between individual states. The United States and Russia, for example, increasingly worked with the League. [98] At the end of the First World War, there were two to three million ex-prisoners of war from various nations dispersed throughout Russia;[98] within two years of the commission's foundation, it had helped 425,000 of them return home. [40], In London Balfour commissioned the first official report into the matter in early 1918, under the initiative of Lord Robert Cecil. The Bulgarian government ordered its troops to make only token resistance, and evacuated between ten thousand and fifteen thousand people from the border region, trusting the League to settle the dispute. Adolf Hitler and Mussolini continued to aid General Francisco Franco's Nationalists, while the Soviet Union helped the Spanish Republic. [141] It was not until the 1938 Polish ultimatum that Lithuania restored diplomatic relations with Poland and thus de facto accepted the borders. The Council and the Assembly established its constitution. [207] The League's collective security system required nations to act, if necessary, against states they considered friendly, and in a way that might endanger their national interests, to support states for which they had no normal affinity. Ikonomou, Haakon, Karen Gram-Skjoldager, eds. Spain gives notice of withdrawal from the League of Nations. The port city of Memel (now Klaipėda) and the surrounding area, with a predominantly German population, was under provisional Entente control according to Article 99 of the Treaty of Versailles. Withdrew from active participation in the League after its defeat by the Soviet Union in 1944. "[114], The territories were governed by mandatory powers, such as the United Kingdom in the case of the Mandate of Palestine, and the Union of South Africa in the case of South-West Africa, until the territories were deemed capable of self-government. [183][184], The Nazi-Soviet Pact of August 23, 1939, contained secret protocols outlining spheres of interest. Its constitution differed from that of the League: representation had been accorded not only to governments but also to representatives of employers' and workers' organisations. In particular, Germany's attempts to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and the reconstruction of the German military made France increasingly unwilling to disarm.[190]. During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, when the League accused Italian soldiers of targeting International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement medical tents, Benito Mussolini responded that "the League is very well when sparrows shout, but no good at all when eagles fall out."[5]. Created by. [24] As a result of the parade, Jane Addams became interested in proposals by two European suffragists—Hungarian Rosika Schwimmer and British Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence—to hold a peace conference. Italian leader Benito Mussolini was incensed and demanded that a commission investigate the incident within five days. The League secured a commitment from Ethiopia to end slavery as a condition of membership in 1923, and worked with Liberia to abolish forced labour and intertribal slavery. [51][52] Though they asked for enfranchisement and full legal protection under the law equal with men,[50] those rights were ignored. [203] Conversely, Henig acknowledges that if the US had been a member, its reluctance to engage in war with European states or to enact economic sanctions might have hampered the ability of the League to deal with international incidents. 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