He named this territory "Ilhas dos Papuas" (Biskup, Jinks & Nelson, 1968:18). And when nation-states acquire power and prestige, they become recognised as civilisations. Second, many colonisers felt that their presence contributed to the economic development of the colonies. This was considered an interim measure before the final preparation for political independence in 1975. The colonial education system was created for the new settler governments. As a Jarrett, Anderson and Nguyen (1990:31) document suggests, more than 90 percent of the land. The Administrative Unit was known as the Australian New Guinea Administrative Unit (ANGAU), and was formed initially to provide support for the War effort (Biskup, Jinks & Nelson, 1968:111), but later became a permanent feature of the colonial state. In the ninetieth century, there were a wide variety of reasons given for colonial activity. There was a tremendous demand for education that was far beyond the ability of the missions to provide. Firstly, it is argued that Papua and New Guinea is an historical artefact constructed through the processes of colonialism. But, in retrospect, it is clear that they had prepared the conditions for the Europeans to later settle in the country and exploit its natural resources for their own economic ends. Is recruitment and appointment of officers based on tribal obligations a "PNG way"? Also, discussions of colonialism do not always clearly distinguish between different aspects of the problem: for example, the conditions which led to the emergence of colonialism; the motives for colonial adventure; the approaches and processes of its realisation; and the effects of colonialism in terms of its benefits and problems, both for the colonisers and the colonised (Fieldhouse, 1981). These materials are processed into manufactured goods and later sold back through the world market economy at extremely high costs to the "developing" countries, creating considerable financial burden on them. They had little administrative experience and were mostly seeking adventure. In order to understand the changing forms of colonialism in PNG, it is useful to provide a brief historical overview of the European presence there. But like all things material, civilisations decay and wither away in time, becoming less important, influential and powerful in relation to other new civilisations that emerge. These were centres where the colonial administration established its offices, the purpose of which was to provide "conducive working environments" and facilitate the various objectives of the agents of "development": missionaries, traders, settlers, planters and so on (Reed, 1983). Related peoples are divided; villagers own land or have traditional rights to hunt and collect on both sides of an international border. The political independence of PNG will become largely symbolic if the fundamental political and economic decisions are steered by foreigners as advisers, as consultants or as business executives; or indeed if the local political and economic elites--the politicians and public servants--simply become the spokespersons for foreign interests. Most land is held in customary (clan) ownership and there are difficulties in unlocking land for development purposes. While outlining PNG foreign investment needs to the Australian-PNG Friendship Association in NSW Parliament House, the then Deputy Prime Minister and National Minister for Finance and Planning, Chan (1993:10) suggested that: We have taken care to make it clearly known the type of investment we seek--this has never been a secret. The PNG Government accuses the Solomon Islands government of harbouring and supporting the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (Post-Courier, 30 April 1993). It argued that indigenous people should be given greater opportunities to be able to make decisions that affected them, even if this meant learning from their mistakes on how to govern their own country. The schools were expected to teach people how to read and write so that they could understand the Bible. In particular, the commission was asked to look at the ways of introducing universal primary education and a more comprehensive system of secondary and tertiary education, including technical education, teacher training and medical, agricultural, and administrative education. So, while most Third World countries welcome aid, there is now an emerging concern that the relationship that defines the provision of aid is constituted by the exercise of a new form of power over the Third World countries. Boehan (1987) argues that in order to understand the factors which led to the Europeans' scramble for colonisation, we need to look at the political, economic and social conditions in 19th-century Europe. Papua New Guineans are now living through a period of considerable stress and change. In other words, they viewed the Gospel through the narrow lenses of the European culture, and thus found it difficult to project a wider concept of Christianity. First, there was the emerging global thinking at the time that, on moral grounds alone, all people should have the right to self-government. The PNG government, together with foreign companies, is, for example, mining copper in Ok Tedi (Jackson, 1982), and gold in Pogera; and is allowing the trees to be cut down for timber in Madang, Manus, West New Britain, Central and Kerema (Deklin, 1992:127). Colonialism has thus mediated in defining not only internal relationships between tribes but also PNG's external relationships with its neighbours. Firstly, it is argued that Papua and New Guinea is an historical artefact constructed through the processes of colonialism. To the East, PNG shares the boundary with the Independent Island State of Solomon Islands. The spread of Christianity and the conflict between its various sects during this period, were also factors in rapid colonial expansion. What this implies is that colonialism is often a much more persistent phenomenon, since, in addition to its political form, it is also characterised by its economic and ideological dimensions. The policy which put into action the government’s Universal Basic Education Plan 2010-2019, is PNG’s fourth and longest-lasting attempt to provide free education in Papua New Guinea. Theirs was a world-view that was not only ethnocentric but which also demanded complete assimilation. New forms of colonialism, which articulate with the older forms in a variety of ways, have emerged. In history, this has been done in a variety of ways, ranging from the use of overt force and the imposition of foreign social, economic and political institutions, and consequently, the destruction of the indigenous ways, to the use of more covert hegemonic means, such as the application of foreign colonial norms which have corroded local values and traditions (Spybey, 1992:114-115). The PNG Government fears the creation of a dependency relationship on foreigners because they have the power of the purse: for after all, if they can control the economy of the country, it is possible they can also control the government and influence the formulation and implementation of key policy decisions. There was considerable debate within Australia about how it might define the scope of its relationship with the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, for Australia clearly faced a number of political dilemmas between its economic interests on the one hand, and its humanitarian commitments to the UN on the other. Between 1973 and 1975, the progress towards full political independence for Papua and New Guinea was rapid. The Assembly consisted of sixty-four members, forty-four of whom represented Open Electorates based on population, ten officials of the Australian Administration and another ten Europeans appointed by the Government. It is interesting to note moreover that foreign investors in PNG have been more interested in exploiting PNG's natural resources than in creating indigenous secondary industries which are considered uneconomical, since, from the capital's point of view, the costs of investment outweigh the profits (Waugh, 1989). At the same time, however, it should be noted that colonial dominance is never uni-directional. The Indian social theorist, Nandy (1983), has developed these ideas further with the use of insights obtained from the Italian sociologist, Gramsci (1978), and the Algerian political writer, Fanon (1967). These boundary skirmishes have implications for PNG's political stability (Waiko, 1993:198-200). Kanaparo is a lecturer at the University of Papua New Guinea's School of Business and Public Policy.1 Walton, G, Davda, T & Kanaparo, P 2017- “The challenges of providing free education in Papua New Guinea,” Development Policy Centre Discussion Paper #61, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University, Canberra. It cannot be denied, however, that between the end of the Second World War in 1945 and 1973, when the Territory was granted a measure of self-government, Australia did much to develop Papua and New Guinea; but what remains an open question is Australia's motivations and for whom its investment was productive. some Western education, an African had a chance at a lifestyle that up to that time he or she could only read about in Western school textbooks. What did they expect to gain from colonial activity? This observation suggests that the dominance of the colonial powers now manifests itself in a new form: through the activities and operations of these institutions and agencies. Not surprisingly, therefore, there is no strong tradition of nationalism in PNG. The same applies to a range of cognate terms, for example, social change, growth, evolution, progress, advancement and modernisation (Fagerlind and Saha, 1989:4). It is a society's capacity to exploit the material resources found in the natural environment that characterises its stage of development. This was a hierarchical system designed to maintain a tight control over indigenous institutions. Educational planners and administrators have found it difficult to implement a hybrid system. The Report was very critical of the Australian administration and recommended a more comprehensive program of political, economic and educational development and more rapid progress towards independence (Downs, 1980:238-251). The ruling group can be either similar or different in their way of life from those who are ruled. We welcome respectable businesses which are prepared to make long term commitment here and genuinely have something to offer. In this arrangement the head of administration was called the High Commissioner who was supported by a number of Deputy Commissioners. Development can thus be judged in a variety of ways using economic indicators such as wealth, as well as social and cultural indicators such as spiritual values, communal values and social harmony. With the acquisition of land came the missionaries, planters and settlers, traders and administrators who became heavily involved in the "development" of PNG (Rowley, 1985), supposedly for the benefit of the indigenous people. In line with Foot's recommendations, the Currie commission concluded that the Australian policy of gradual development in education must be abandoned and that there should be a more rapid expansion of secondary schools and tertiary institutions (Smith, 1975:37). The recipient countries either have problems in repaying the loans or find it difficult to accommodate the economic demands of the donor countries. The administrative system that the Papuan colonial authorities set up was concerned solely with the issues of law and order, and owed much to the British colonial experience in the Western Pacific, especially Fiji. In most colonised countries, this has resulted in the formation of a dual or mixed economy (Brookfield, 1972). It represents a certain cultural continuity and carries a certain cultural baggage" (1983, pp 1-2). The local companies have danced to the tune of these international interests. There will also be conclusion/refl ections at the end of the chapter. This coincided with the Age of Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution so that there appeared no limits to the frontiers, abstract or physical, that Europeans could push back. The opportunities they had to play an influential role in the decision-making were limited. As such, it has been r… With the passage of time, and often as a result of a long struggle, either by peaceful or violent means, nations obtain political independence, which is assumed to mark the end of colonial rule, signified by the exodus of colonial rulers and an end to their dominance and influence. In the next chapter, I examine the concept of devolution as it relates to the ways education is administered in Papua New Guinea. The fast-flowing meandering rivers such as the Sepik and Fly, are another characteristic of this land. The new entrepreneurs work through foreign companies or organisations, and often engage local entrepreneurs as business partners in the exploitation of both renewable and non-renewable resources. Accordingly, the expatriates are considered by the PNG Government to be indispensable to the processes of economic and social development. Prior to colonial occupation, its people did not regard PNG as a nation. Through this system, the whole of New Guinea was, either directly or indirectly, under the control of the German colonial authorities by 1914. For instance, the capital city of Papua New Guinea is named after Captain John Moresby; the great dividing range which divides Papua and New Guinea is named after Captain Owen Stanley; the island of Bougainville is named after Conte de Bougainville; the Schouten Island is named after the sailor Schouten (see PNG Map 3 on early European explorations). O'Collins 1993:(67-68) contends: Aid in the form of direct grants, training programmes, visiting experts, and consultants has many faces and many effects on those who are the recipients. The problems associated with such classificatory systems are now well-known (see for example Boon, 1982; Holy, 1987; and Kuper, 1992) and relate to their ethnocentricity. The difficulty members have rationalising their own expectations with those of their electors is evident in one debate after another ... A parliamentarian expresses this concern in the following terms: When the people elect me to parliament, they think I own the Bank of PNG. It has become a major trouble-spot in PNG (Connell, 1990), as both its ownership, and the profits from the mining activity, are disputed (Connell, 1992). Henningham and May (1992:1) further maintain: Hundreds have been killed, property worth millions of dollars has been destroyed or damaged, production at one of the world's largest copper and gold mines has ceased, and the political stability and integrity of the largest of the Pacific Island countries has been challenged. This attracts foreign fishing companies, often with the approval of the respective governments for whom the commercial activity represents a major financial bonus (Waugh, 1992). Since 1991, this policy statement has had a major impact on the formulation of sectoral programs and projects, including education, in PNG. Politically, the colonial powers were rivals. Under the colonial rule, the notion of education in PNG had been transformed from a traditional into a "western" one. Griffin (1978:xi) refers to these motives as: Concern, Careerism, Cupidity, or Didacticism, Dominion, Dividends ... Concern and Didactism allow that not all purveyors of Light were evangelists and that there were irreligious humanitarians who wanted to disperse darkness. In the operations of local schools, those residing in the traditional communities were given little opportunity to participate either in decision-making or in teaching activities. In more recent years, these functionalist assumptions and the notion of development as applied to nation-states has been subjected to a great deal of critical analysis (Hettne, 1990). In recent years, this disruption has led to the closure of the copper mine, as well as to the threat of secession. The paper is reprinted from the International Journal of University Adult Education 24 (2) (1987). The other 15 percent of Papua and New Guineans are urban dwellers who work and/or live in towns and cities like Port Moresby, Alotau, Kerema, Daru, Poponetta, Lae, Madang, Wewak, Vainimo, Hagen, Wabag, Goroka, Rabaul, Kimbe, Kavieng and Lorengau. The University of PNG was also established in 1965, with the expressed aim of providing the emerging nation with an educated elite (Griffin, 1976:100). In all, some 8,000 Australian public servants were recruited during 1949-1975 with almost half of them choosing to stay on in PNG after independence and a small number of them remaining in the country as immigrants. Papua New Guineans often experience the best and the worst characteristics of each type of society. Most members of the United Nations were sympathetic towards this cause of independence and it was in this context that there were mounting pressures on Australia to fulfil its obligation to Papua and New Guinea. But economic dependency has also meant that, after political independence, most previously colonised countries have been unable to secure the economic freedom they had been promised (Faraclas, 1993). It suggested that more Europeans might need to be recruited both in public and private sectors to quicken the pace of development. There is an urgent need to reform the educational system to achieve universal primary education in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The profit motive looms large in their thinking. Nelson (1974:47) argues: Like many other areas which have been colonies, Papua New Guinea will inherit awkward, perhaps intractable, borders. Furthermore, within PNG, Indonesia is widely believed to be pursuing expansionist policies. So while villages in PNG were once self-reliant communities, they have now become dependent on government hand-outs and welfare (Dorney, 1990). It is interesting to note that in 1952 there were only 334 local officers in the public service (Downs, 1980), most of them occupying junior clerical key positions and thus unable to make a contribution to the major decisions which affected the development of Papua and New Guinea (Parker, 1966b). Parson's thinking has been influential in informing the modernisation theory. Ultimately, economic growth is not a goal in itself. The plan sought to supply social services that had not previously been provided by the Government, including schools and hospitals. It should be noted that a centralised bureaucracy persists in PNG and that any democratic reforms that the government might propose have to filter through this bureaucracy. Papua New Guinea Education System Papua New Guinea has an education system which emanates from the British and Australian education systems as the country’s colonial masters (Pau, 1993; Waiko, 1997). 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